A Review of Tokyo Poetry Journal, Vol. 5, Japan and the Beats [by Larry Sawyer]

nanao sakaki Japanese poet Nanao Sakaki.

What a pleasure to receive this update in the mail from Taylor Mignon, editor of Tokyo Poetry Journal. The latest edition, devoted to Japan and the Beats, is large at more than 200 pages and well worth your time. This issue delineates a long history that begins somewhat nebulously as multiple poets in the 1950s and 60s were beginning to become aware of the Beats and American Kenneth Rexroth brought Japanese art to American poets and audiences. Nanao Sakaki by most accounts was Japan’s first prominent Beat writer and he proceeded to translate the work of American poet Gary Snyder into Japanese. Also, it should be noted that Rexroth did a huge service to Japanese poets in diligently translating their work into English. It should be remembered that Rexroth spoke and wrote fluent Japanese and Chinese (unlike Ezra Pound).

This issue of Tokyo Poetry Journal contains much new and also some republished seminal works of Japanese writing translated into English and also the work of some fellow Anglo outriders who exerted their energies in a similar direction. As a bit of context the preface sets up the work wonderfully by mentioning that Katagiri Yuzuru was the first Japanese to produce a Beat anthology in Japan “with Objectivist poets, as well as Denise Levertov.” I was glad to see Levertov’s name mentioned as an exemplar of American Beat poets because her important work certainly serves as some of the best Beat writing.

Shiraishi_Kazuko600Japanese poet Shiraishi Kazuko.

Another early Japanese journal that published American poets was VOU, which published Robert Creeley and Allen Ginsberg, as well as Ezra Pound, Henry Miller, and others. Another journal named TRAP was edited by poet Torii Shozo and published Japanese surrealists such as Kitasono Katue and Yamamoto Kansuke. (I had received permission in 2004 to publish a large installation of the work of Yamamoto Kansuke from the Kansuke estate in my poetry journal milkmag.org and was also glad to see a mention of Nexus magazine, which I also used to edit, in regard to Japanese Beat poetry. In Nexus I published, with Taylor Mignon’s assistance as translator, the poet Torii Shozo.)

American poet, traveler, and photographer Ira Cohen also was published numerous times in latter day Beat-related Japanese journals. Cohen’s poetic style, influenced heavily by Beat prosody and approach, found a perfect home alongside the work of a now older Nanao Sakaki. Still other journals such as Printed Matter and Blue Beat Jacket published many Japanese Beat poets as well as post-Beat poets such as New Yorker Steve Dalachinsky. The American poets most associated with Japanese poetry nameley Kenneth Rextroth, Gary Snyder, Philip Whalen, Cid Corman, Allen Ginsberg, and Joanne Kyger were a gateway to another world. Entrance to that world was a revolving door, however. American poets gained much from their Japanese counterparts and vice versa.

kenneth-rexroth American poet Kenneth Rexroth.


Importantly, American poet and scholar John Solt continues to this day to bridge America and Japan with bi-lingual events, readings, as poet and translator of Japanese poetry, and art curator. He is a prime force that serves as art conduit showing that the original nexus between the two countries and simpatico aesthetics indeed still exist and even thrive.

Delving into some of the poetry contained in the pages of this issue of Tokyo Poetry Journal, however, would best illustrate the wide range of work practiced by these poets.

Fitting that the issue starts with very visual work by Shiraishi Kazuko with a poetic portrait of Tokyo followed by one of America. We view the world through nearly filmic lens, as the poet’s Beat style jump cuts through the dark images of her day with violence and tenderness and some irony.

from “My Tokyo” [excerpts, translator/Kenneth Rexroth]

… like two young leopards in the deep woods of their yearning
In each other’s secret rooms
The ravishing monkey women
Balance rainbows of caresses like
The glow of morning

…Forced through a fog of foreboding
I could barely hear God’s pain
Then it reached agony
Now for the first time I behold
God entire, falling in a thunderbolt, roaring

from “My America” [excerpt, translator/Kenneth Rexroth]

…On Saturday night glued to TV
Dying to make an American million
Your bare teeth shining

American baby
Nobody ever calls the American gentle anymore
They figure he’s had it in Hollywood
Handsome, young, and loaded
Nevertheless heading over the hill
Suffering from three kinds of cancer
You only call hippies gentle these days

…Hey, stranger–
So you’re called America
You glittering, nameless
My private, custom-made America…

Now in her mid-eighties, Shiraishi Kazuko, was once called “the Allen Ginsberg” of Japan by Kenneth Rexroth and in the essay “Japan Beat: Kazuko Shiraishi” A. Robert Lee writes that Ginsberg once ironically said of Shiraishi “we may as well be husband and wife.”

In her excellent poem “Indigo, for Nanao Sakaki” American poet Anne Waldman writes:

on planet Earth

Tell us:
epochs, empires
indeed, the
syndicates of samsara

storm in

Tell us

You knew
the New Weathers
you knew

& a revolution
that turns many ways
in you

Lonely enclosures
of history
spook us

But you never
divided the sky
from the

You never took
for memory

You were the
hero in the forest…


kyoto-japan-20913 Kyoto, Japan.


Linda Russo writes in “Considering Joanne Kyger in Kyoto”:

[A poem of Kyger’s] largest fragment tells of a trip, presumably on Snyder’s motorcycle:

We took the left fork
up into Yase valley at the rise of the hill, used only
by woodsmen, charcoal makers

moving farther
and farther back into the valley burning trees as they go
Situated on near inaccessible
hillsides and their families, smoking out wood.

American poet Joanne Kyger lived with Gary Snyder outside of Kyoto as he practiced a “monkish” Buddhist existence. One can see why the Beats were fascinated with Kyoto. It provided relatively cheap, rustic living, in absolutely beautiful surroundings that allowed one to meditate and focus on art. It’s not a mystery why the Japanese poets were interested in American Beat writing, it was indeed a breath of fresh air in its honesty, sexuality, and even violence but it’s not as easy to determine why Japanese poets would interested in America itself, frought as it was (and is) with problems and division.

Between the pages of this issue are numerous poems, photographs, and drawings that tell a fantastic tale of a band of like-minded souls that yearned for liberation and peace in the world. I can certainly say we are much like them right now as the world experiences a new set of problems for new generations. The Beat current still travels through it …

“Must”  by Kizuki Mihiro

“Do you like Ginsberg, Kerouac, or Burroughs?”
An old hippie man asks. I didn’t know any of them when I
started reading poems.

“Which do like the most among the Beat generation works?”
An intelligent university student asked. I had never read their works
when I became a performance poet.

“Did you watch ‘Naked Lunch’, ‘The Last Time I Committed Suicide,’ or ‘Beatnik’?” Ask a world-wide senior poet.

I understood.
It’s like Led Zeppelin for rock kids.


The way that Beat writing and culture permeated world culture spreading from North Beach, San Francisco and Los Angeles and New York City to Europe and also Japan before becoming embedded as it is now in American culture–a background music or eternal cosmic mosaic that mapped the madness of American life in the 50s, 60s, and 70s as consumer capitalism reared its head in the form of Vietnam and (and now in the ugliness of the Trump presidency).

As early as 1953 Jack Kerouac was studying Zen Buddhism to some degree and when he met and spent time with Gary Snyder in 1955 more seriously, as they hung out in San Francisco together carousing and then got high on the “mountain trails of the High Sierras.” Some of which Kerouac immortalized in his book The Dharma Bums. Snyder then famously left for Japan in 1956 and it had an enduring effect on his life and art.

As Kizuki Mihiro writes in his poem “Beatific” ecstatically “I can hear the howl of celebration for this beatific world” ….we are drawn in as observers but also become participants in the poetry in this issue of Tokyo Poetry Journal. Even the old mirrors our present concerns.

It’s a celebration of the variousness of the world, a call for sanity, a Dionysian bacchanalia, and also a prescient warning about the precariousness of life on earth.  I enjoyed these poems of joy, death, and romance. As the Beats relied on imagery, confession, and a tinge of surrealism, those poets here also present an assault on the senses that awakens and instills wonder but also reminds us to practice enduring patience and to realize our connection with the natural world. As in “Gathering Shellfish” by Yamao Sansei (translation by Scott Watson):

Beat by sun’s blaze
this blue-purple sea breeze caresses coolly.

One rock at a step
through spray from waves.

On this shore where no one is
silence is mesolithic, is wealth.
Civilization stops
without transmission.  Body is aware,
quiet, rich, mesolithic.

A breeze
a sun
a sea.



Larry SAWYER is a poet and editor living in Chicago. He curates the Myopic Poetry Series. His recent books include Vertigo Diary, Breaking Lorca, and Unable to Fully California.

























































































How the Republican Tax Cut & Jobs Act will hurt American higher education [by Nadia Vinogradova]

We know by now that the Republican Senate tax bill was revised, scribbled and not given sufficient reading time. It passed in the Senate a quarter after one in the morning—or at least that’s when the first headline proclaimed it so. The House version of this bill would make the taxes of a first- or second-year graduate student at Northwestern University go up by 499.7 percent. Currently, the tax burden for a $29,000 yearly stipend is $2,293. This would change to $11,460 a year if tuition becomes taxable income. As a fourth-year, my taxes would only rise by 157.3 percent. But beyond my personal finances, the House bill will also devastate higher education in America.

Americans are used to winning Nobel Prizes. We have top-notch research published in every field, and we’re renowned for our college and postgraduate programs and departments at a variety of state and private universities and colleges. This is a relic of the money we invested in science and education during the Cold War. Our country is a world leader in technology and innovation, in scientific breakthroughs, medicine and the arts. This all stands to change because of one little exclusion: 117(d).

The Republican Tax Cut and Jobs Act — the House bill — excludes Section 117(d) of the Internal Revenue Code. This section is vital to the wellbeing of higher education in America. It exempts tuition from being taxable income. Without it, graduate students will have to pay taxes on their tuition and stipend, which many cases more than quadruples their tax burden, and shifts the already modest income from our stipend to an income that has graduate students living below the poverty line. In effect, graduate school is no longer affordable to students without an independent source of income — say, a trust fund.

 Alternatively, if it’s at all possible to keep Section 117(d) in the final Republican tax bill, this particular crisis may be averted. I and my friends will continue to call our representatives and insist on this. However, it has not been a year of favorable votes for those of us who cannot afford professional bribers (why America has a separate name for lobbyists baffles me – corporate corruption is corruption by any other name).

The fight over the tax bill is far from over: the next task of lawmakers is to reconcile the two versions of the bill. The House bill is deadly to higher education — the Senate bill is merely harmful. I will focus on the consequences of the former; if the House bill’s exclusion of 117(d) is accepted in the final version of the bill, many of my friends are going to drop out of their graduate programs.  There will be a mass exodus, first of international students, then of lower-class and middle-class American students. I do not know how the university will handle the loss; it’s needless to point out that graduate students teach and serve as teaching assistants for a vast portion of courses and labs across departments. This is not an alarmist outlook. It is a firsthand account. I do not type this lightly. I know it is, and will be, a devastating blow to the people who drop out. What is perhaps more devastating is the fact that the university has the means to mitigate this damage, but will likely refuse to do so.

 I will commit a faux pas here, and talk numbers. The university pays me $29,000 a year, and it also pays itself about $52,000 a year for tuition. I never see a penny of that second number. I am not required to do coursework this year, though I am required to teach a language course Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday from 9-10 a.m. So why am I charged tuition?

 Full disclosure: I do sit in on a course, because I choose to. But this is not entirely relevant. Courses are training toward the work graduate students do: research and teaching. On-the-job training should be paid for, it should not cost money. In all other fields, this is the case. Why not in the academy?

Graduate students are graduate workers, and should not be charged tuition in the first place. By charging and then waiving large sums of money for tuition, the university can tout its generosity — in transferring money from one pocket to another — and it continues to do this because paying tuition is financially advantageous for the university. Under Code Section 501(c)(3) and Section 115 of the IRS code, private universities qualify as tax-exempt organizations because they exist for educational purposes and universities list the tuition they waive (for graduate students) under tax-exempt charitable gifts. Tying these sums of money up in “educational purposes” — though it is essentially work training, as discussed — makes this money tax exempt. Please correct me if I misunderstand the nuances of our current tax system, but it seems to me that universities will refrain from lowering tuition for graduate students because this conflicts with their own self-interest.

It would be quite simple for the university to reduce tuition to a nominal fee — say, $25 per year for every graduate student for all five years of their initial contract (if graduate students had contracts. We should and we are unionizing towards this. That is another matter.) The point, however, is that universities will not want to do this. They will say instead that they want to help, really, but do nothing that might be financially disadvantageous to the (frankly bloated) administration. And this will result in a significant percentage of graduate students dropping out. More students who are early in their careers will drop out, as the debt from their undergraduate years in addition to the onerous burden of five or more years of accruing further debt will — for good reason — daunt and deter them from pursuing their dream and working frankly ridiculous hours for the university. Ramen noodles will fuel passion, but these poor souls won’t be able to afford ramen.

And this is the real loss for the university. It will still have students, but the quality and caliber of these students will change. They will be bright, perhaps, but they will be drawn from a smaller pool – the independently wealthy. This will limit their brightness. It will limit research, creativity and talent, and it will bring in its own set of problems. Entitled graduate students are less likely to put effort into teaching undergraduates or pursuing research for passion when they can simply buy their degrees. This will erode and devalue the quality of research and of the university itself. This process is already underway, but the House’s Tax Cut and Jobs Act would catalyze it significantly. What might have taken generations or decades will likely occur over a handful of years. I might go further to speculate that an erosion of education and the skills of skeptical thinking will lead to an erosion in our democracy. I dare say it already has.

Vital is the fact that the university could prevent this by changing its tuition system. And the first university to do this would have the gratitude of its graduate students and the spotlight in the national conversation. It would have a righteous position of moral superiority, too, but, more importantly, it would demonstrate that it prioritizes its proclaimed values — the academy stands by truth and knowledge — over money. The politics of the past year have been demoralizing to many of us, and nothing short of strong support and action on the part of the university now — before graduate students are forced to make that difficult decision to leave — can save both the graduate students and the University.

Northwestern could be the institution that sets the trend, the first of many universities. For the sake of my friends, of higher education in this country, and yes, of my finances, I hope that Northwestern proceeds with these or similar reforms. But I won’t be holding my breath.


Nadia Vinogradova is a graduate student at Northwestern University.



Bourbon straight out of the bottle
before I go to bed
Who could tell you better
what love is really like?

I don’t remember
It was a burn in my chest
and a physical wish
Made my jaws tingle
and kicked my ass in the morning

Rubber Jim, Shady Lady
High Buck, Saw Buck
Duck Walk, Calamity Rose

Falling apart all over you

Stumbling around in a hazmat suit
Shoelaces tied together
I walked home from the disposable China factory
singing “Sad Eyed Lady of The Lowlands”

“Fancy that,” she said, “You’ve learned
to speak in whole sentences,
most of the time”

And she was right, most of the time
She was the smartest one in the family
When she wasn’t crying about how cruel life is
and how none of it ever comes easy

“Oh, you’re a fine judge of character
But your stepping on my toes,” I said
“and making my plantar fasciitus bleed
Ease up some and let the good times roll…”

But she didn’t, she couldn’t
She was a Catholic and so was her mother
Beer was her divine grace and eternal covenant
So she cried and cried, drank and cried
Not that all Catholics do
But you can imagine

Rubber Jim, Shady Lady
High Buck, Saw Buck
Duck Walk, Calamity Rose

Falling apart all over you

I regret I never became a superstar
I was always too shy for that
Suffering from low blue self-esteem
or false humility, I’m not certain…

I’d lie in bed in the dark any time of the day
Tired of the world and Moses
Great things are for great people, I’d moan

Modest contemplation deserves a reward
and should always get it…

“You have to work it”
The movers and shakers like to say
“Enter the system, come to a meeting”
How, exactly, do you “work it”?
“Work it like you’re worth it,” one professional said

Give me my own distillery, I thought, I’ll do it myself
Besides why do I need a middle-man
“That flower is bootiful all in itself, ” I said
And drank myself unconscious

Bourbon straight out of the bottle
before I go to bed
Who could tell you better
what love is really like?

January 28, 2016


Appeared previously in Oakland Review


Michael Rothenberg is an American poet, songwriter, editor, and active environmentalist. With Terri Carrion he founded the organization 100,000 Poets for Change. He also edits Big Bridge magazine online.